State of Washington v. Trump et al
Plaintiff: State of Washington
Defendant: Matthew Donovan, US Department of the Interior, US Department of Homeland Security, US Department of Defense, Donald J Trump, US Department of the Treasury, Richard V Spencer, Ryan D McCarthy, United States of America, Steven T Mnuchin, Mark T Esper, David Bernhardt, Kevin McAleenan and Kevin K McAleenan
Amicus Curiae: Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, National Immigration Law Center, Amici Curiae Former U.S. Government Officials, U.S. House of Representatives, Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law and Former Members of Congress
Case Number: 2:2019cv01502
Filed: September 19, 2019
Court: US District Court for the Western District of Washington
Presiding Judge: Barbara J Rothstein
Nature of Suit: Other Statutes: Administrative Procedures Act/Review or Appeal of Agency Decision
Cause of Action: 05:702
Jury Demanded By: None
Docket Report

This docket was last retrieved on February 27, 2020. A more recent docket listing may be available from PACER.

Date Filed Document Text
November 15, 2019 Filing 43 CROSS-MOTION AND RESPONSE re #16 MOTION for Summary Judgment ., filed by Defendants David Bernhardt, Matthew Donovan, Mark T Esper, Kevin K McAleenan, Ryan D McCarthy, Steven T Mnuchin, Richard V Spencer, Donald J Trump, US Department of Defense, US Department of Homeland Security, US Department of the Interior, US Department of the Treasury, United States of America. Oral Argument Requested. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit, #2 Exhibit, #3 Exhibit, #4 Exhibit, #5 Exhibit, #6 Exhibit, #7 Exhibit, #8 Exhibit, #9 Exhibit, #10 Exhibit, #11 Exhibit)(Warden, Andrew)
November 12, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 42 MINUTE ORDER: Having reviewed the joint stipulation to amend briefing schedule [Dkt. No. #22 ], the Court HEREBY ORDERS that Plaintiff's page limit for its opposition to Defendants' cross-motion and reply in support of motion for summary judgment shall be thirty (30) pages and Defendants' page limit for its cross-motion for summary judgment and opposition to Plaintiff's motion for summary judgment is forty (40) pages. Authorized by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (TH)
November 6, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 41 MINUTE ORDER: Having reviewed the unopposed motions to file amicus curiae briefs by the National Immigration Law Center and the Northwest Immigration Rights Project [Dkt. No. #26 ], the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law [Dkt. No. #33 ], the United States House of Representatives [Dkt. No. #36 ], and former members of Congress [Dkt. No. #37 ], the Court HEREBY GRANTS the motions. The amicus curiae briefs attached to each motion are HEREBY deemed filed. Authorized by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (TH)
November 4, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 40 MINUTE ORDER: Pursuant to the Standing Order for Civil Cases (Standing Order) [Dkt. No. 7], the Court HEREBY STRIKES the noting date for the following motions [Dkt. No. 33,36,37]. Instead, pursuant to Section II.A. 3 of the Standing Order, the opposition to the motion is due twenty-one (21) days after the date on which the motion was filed and the reply is due fourteen (14) days after the opposition is filed. Where oppositions are not anticipated, the Court will consider said motions upon filing. This Minute Order does not strike the motion; rather, it strikes the noting date. The Court will consider the motion upon the completion of briefing in accordance with the foregoing schedule. In the future, the Court expects the parties to comply with the terms of the Standing Order. Signed by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (RM)
November 4, 2019 Filing 39 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Robert M McKenna on behalf of Amicus Former Members of Congress. (McKenna, Robert)
November 1, 2019 NOTICE of Docket Text Modification re #38 Notice to Filer : Modified docket text on 11/4/2019 to indicate this notice was posted in error. Counsel must submit a petition for conditional admission. (SWT)
November 1, 2019 NOTE: Document #37 was filed incorrectly. Appearances of attorneys Robert McKenna, Irvin Nathan, Robert Weiner, Andrew Tutt, Kaitlin Konkel, Samuel Callhan, Douglas Winthrop is not proper, and notices of electronic filing will not be sent until corrected. Signatures must be in accordance with FRCP 11 and LCR 83 and must comply with #ECF Filing Procedures. (SWT)
November 1, 2019 Filing 38 PLEASE DISREGARD. NOTICE TO FILER re Pro Hac Vice Application for attorneys Todd Tatelman, Megan Barbero, Josephine Morse, Adam Grogg : re #36 Unopposed MOTION for Leave to File Amicus Brief. Notice of Filing Deficiency** Action Required ** See attached letter for more Information and instructions. (SWT) Modified docket text on 11/4/2019 to indicate this notice was posted in error. Counsel must submit a petition for conditional admission (SWT).
November 1, 2019 Filing 37 MOTION for Leave to File Brief in Support of Plaintiff's Motion for Summary Judgment, filed by Amicus Former Members of Congress. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit Amici Curiae Brief, #2 Proposed Order) (McKenna, Robert)
November 1, 2019 Filing 36 Unopposed MOTION for Leave to File Amicus Brief, filed by Amicus U.S. House of Representatives. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit, #2 Proposed Order) (Tatelman, Todd)
November 1, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 35 ORDER re #32 Application for Leave to Appear Pro Hac Vice. The Court ADMITS Attorney Elizabeth Goitein for Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, by Clerk William M McCool. No document associated with this docket entry, text only.NOTE TO COUNSEL: Local counsel agrees to sign all filings and to be prepared to handle the matter, including the trial thereof, in the event the applicant is unable to be present on any date scheduled by the court, pursuant to LCR 83.1(d).(DS)
November 1, 2019 Filing 34 CORPORATE DISCLOSURE STATEMENT indicating no Corporate Parents and/or Affiliates. Filed pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P 7.1. Filed by Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law (Payson, Kenneth)
November 1, 2019 Filing 33 Agreed MOTION for Leave to File Amicus Curiae Brief, filed by Amicus Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit A, #2 Proposed Order) (Payson, Kenneth)
November 1, 2019 Filing 32 APPLICATION OF ATTORNEY Elizabeth Goitein FOR LEAVE TO APPEAR PRO HAC VICE for Amicus Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law (Fee Paid) Receipt No. 0981-5992106 (Payson, Kenneth)
November 1, 2019 Filing 31 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Kenneth E Payson on behalf of Amicus Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law. (Payson, Kenneth)
November 1, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 30 MINUTE ORDER: Pursuant to the Standing Order for Civil Cases (Standing Order) [Dkt. No. 7], the Court HEREBY STRIKES the noting date for the motion for leave to file Amicus Curiae Brief [Dkt. No. 26]. Instead, pursuant to Section II.A. 3 of the Standing Order, the opposition to the motion is due twenty-one (21) days after the date on which the motion was filed and the reply is due fourteen (14) days after the opposition is filed. This Minute Order does not strike the motion; rather, it strikes the noting date. The Court will consider the motion upon the completion of briefing in accordance with the foregoing schedule. In the future, the Court expects the parties to comply with the terms of the Standing Order. Signed by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (RM)
November 1, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 29 ORDER re #28 Corrected Application for Leave to Appear Pro Hac Vice. The Court ADMITS Attorney Max S Wolson for National Immigration Law Center and Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, by Clerk William M McCool. No document associated with this docket entry, text only.NOTE TO COUNSEL: Local counsel agrees to sign all filings and to be prepared to handle the matter, including the trial thereof, in the event the applicant is unable to be present on any date scheduled by the court, pursuant to LCR 83.1(d).(CDA) Modified on 11/1/2019 correct title of application(CDA).
November 1, 2019 Filing 28 CORRECTED APPLICATION OF ATTORNEY Max S. Wolson FOR LEAVE TO APPEAR PRO HAC VICE by Amicus Parties National Immigration Law Center, Northwest Immigrant Rights Project. Receipt No. 0981-5990466 (Adams, Matt) Modified on 11/1/2019 indicate corrected application (CDA).
October 31, 2019 Filing 27 APPLICATION OF ATTORNEY Max S. Wolson FOR LEAVE TO APPEAR PRO HAC VICE for Amicus Parties National Immigration Law Center, Northwest Immigrant Rights Project (Fee Paid) Receipt No. 0981-5990466 (Adams, Matt)
October 31, 2019 Filing 26 Unopposed MOTION for Leave to File Amicus Curiae Brief, filed by Amicus Parties National Immigration Law Center, Northwest Immigrant Rights Project. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit Proposed Brief of Amicus Curiae, #2 Proposed Order) (Kang, Leila)
October 31, 2019 Filing 25 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Leila Kang on behalf of Amicus Parties National Immigration Law Center, Northwest Immigrant Rights Project. (Kang, Leila)
October 31, 2019 Filing 24 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Matt Adams on behalf of Amicus Parties Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, National Immigration Law Center. (Adams, Matt)
October 31, 2019 Filing 23 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Aaron Korthuis on behalf of Amicus Parties Northwest Immigrant Rights Project, National Immigration Law Center. (Korthuis, Aaron)
October 29, 2019 Filing 22 STIPULATION AND PROPOSED ORDER Amending Briefing Schedule by parties (Hughes, Andrew)
October 28, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 21 ORDER granting #20 Motion for Leave to File Amicus Brief in Support of Plaintiff's Motion for Summary Judgment: The amicus brief attached as Exhibit A to the Motion for Leave is hereby deemed filed. Signed by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein.(MW)
October 25, 2019 Attorney Jessica C. Kerr for Amici Curiae Former U.S. Government Officials added; per #19 Notice of Appearance. (MW)
October 25, 2019 Filing 20 MOTION for Leave to File Amicus Brief in Support of Plaintiff's Motion for Summary Judgment, filed by Amicus Amici Curiae Former U.S. Government Officials. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit A, #2 Proposed Order) Noting Date 10/25/2019, (Ewart, Michael)
October 25, 2019 Filing 19 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Michael J Ewart on behalf of Amicus Amici Curiae Former U.S. Government Officials. (Ewart, Michael)
October 25, 2019 Filing 18 DECLARATION of Kathy L. Oline filed by Plaintiff State of Washington re #16 MOTION for Summary Judgment (Attachments: #1 Exhibit A, #2 Exhibit B)(Hughes, Andrew)
October 25, 2019 Filing 17 DECLARATION of Andrew Hughes filed by Plaintiff State of Washington re #16 MOTION for Summary Judgment (Attachments: #1 Exhibit A, #2 Exhibit B, #3 Exhibit C, #4 Exhibit D)(Hughes, Andrew)
October 25, 2019 Filing 16 MOTION for Summary Judgment , filed by Plaintiff State of Washington. (Attachments: #1 Proposed Order)(Hughes, Andrew)
October 25, 2019 Filing 15 AMENDED COMPLAINT for Declaratory Judgment and Injunctive Relief against All Defendants, filed by State of Washington. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit A, #2 Exhibit B, #3 Exhibit C, #4 Exhibit D)(Hughes, Andrew)
October 17, 2019 Filing 14 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Brendan C Selby on behalf of Plaintiff State of Washington. (Selby, Brendan)
October 17, 2019 Filing 13 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Martha Rodriguez-Lopez on behalf of Plaintiff State of Washington. (Rodriguez-Lopez, Martha)
October 16, 2019 Filing 12 RECEIPT of CD containing administrative record re #9 (Placed in 1 accordion folder in Seattle Clerk's Office filing shelf) (MW)
October 16, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 11 STIPULATION AND ORDER Establishing Briefing Schedule for Expedited Resolution of this Case and Prohibiting Defendants' Obligation of Funds Authorized to be Appropriated for Naval Base Kitsap Prior to a Decision by this Court re parties' #10 Stipulation. Signed by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (TH)
October 11, 2019 Filing 10 STIPULATION AND PROPOSED ORDER Establishing Briefing Schedule by parties (Hughes, Andrew)
October 11, 2019 Filing 9 ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD For Border Barrier Projects Undertaken Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2808 filed by Defendants David Bernhardt, Matthew Donovan, Mark T Esper, Kevin K McAleenan, Ryan D McCarthy, Steven T Mnuchin, Richard V Spencer, Donald J Trump, US Department of Defense, US Department of Homeland Security, US Department of the Interior, US Department of the Treasury, United States of America. (Attachments: #1 Exhibit Administrative Record - Part 1, #2 Exhibit Administrative Record - Part 2, #3 Exhibit Administrative Record - Part 3, #4 Exhibit Certification of Administrative Record)(Warden, Andrew)
October 11, 2019 Filing 8 NOTICE of Appearance by attorney Andrew I Warden on behalf of Defendants David Bernhardt, Matthew Donovan, Mark T Esper, Kevin K McAleenan, Ryan D McCarthy, Steven T Mnuchin, Richard V Spencer, Donald J Trump, US Department of Defense, US Department of Homeland Security, US Department of the Interior, US Department of the Treasury, United States of America. (Warden, Andrew)
October 11, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 7 STANDING ORDER FOR CIVIL CASES. The procedures in this Order supplement, and in some cases, supersede the local rules. The parties are responsible for being familiar with the procedures in this Order. Failure to comply with the procedures may result in sanctions. Signed by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (RM)
October 11, 2019 Opinion or Order Filing 6 ORDER REGARDING INITIAL DISCLOSURES AND JOINT STATUS REPORT Joint Status Report due by 11/22/2019, FRCP 26f Conference Deadline is 11/8/2019, Initial Disclosure Deadline is 11/15/2019, by Judge Barbara J. Rothstein. (RM)
September 24, 2019 Filing 5 CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE by Plaintiff State of Washington re #2 Praecipe for a Summons, #1 Complaint, (Hughes, Andrew)
September 19, 2019 Filing 4 Summons(es) Electronically Issued as to defendant(s) All Defendants (Attachments: #1 Summons, #2 Summons, #3 Summons, #4 Summons, #5 Summons, #6 Summons, #7 Summons, #8 Summons, #9 Summons, #10 Summons, #11 Summons, #12 Summons)(SNP)
September 19, 2019 Filing 3 NOTICE TO FILER: re #1 Complaint,. Notice of Filing Deficiency** Action Required ** See attached letter for more information and instructions. (SNP)
September 19, 2019 Judge Barbara J. Rothstein added. (SNP)
September 19, 2019 Filing 2 PRAECIPE TO ISSUE SUMMONS re #1 Complaint, by Plaintiff State of Washington (Attachments: #1 Summons, #2 Summons, #3 Summons, #4 Summons, #5 Summons, #6 Summons, #7 Summons, #8 Summons, #9 Summons, #10 Summons, #11 Summons, #12 Summons)(Hughes, Andrew)
September 19, 2019 Filing 1 COMPLAINT for Declaratory Judgment and Injunctive Relief against All Defendants (Receipt # 0981-5932115), filed by State of Washington. (Attachments: #1 Civil Cover Sheet, #2 Exhibit, #3 Exhibit, #4 Exhibit, #5 Exhibit)(Hughes, Andrew)

Access additional case information on PACER

Use the links below to access additional information about this case on the US Court's PACER system. A subscription to PACER is required.

Access this case on the Washington Western District Court's Electronic Court Filings (ECF) System

Search for this case: State of Washington v. Trump et al
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Matthew Donovan
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: US Department of the Interior
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: US Department of Homeland Security
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: US Department of Defense
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Donald J Trump
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: US Department of the Treasury
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Richard V Spencer
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Ryan D McCarthy
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: United States of America
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Steven T Mnuchin
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Mark T Esper
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: David Bernhardt
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Kevin McAleenan
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Defendant: Kevin K McAleenan
Represented By: Andrew I Warden
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Plaintiff: State of Washington
Represented By: Andrew R. W. Hughes
Represented By: Martha Rodriguez-Lopez
Represented By: Brendan C Selby
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: Northwest Immigrant Rights Project
Represented By: Max S Wolson
Represented By: Leila Kang
Represented By: Aaron Korthuis
Represented By: Matt Adams
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: National Immigration Law Center
Represented By: Max S Wolson
Represented By: Leila Kang
Represented By: Aaron Korthuis
Represented By: Matt Adams
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: Amici Curiae Former U.S. Government Officials
Represented By: Michael J Ewart
Represented By: Jessica C. Kerr
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: U.S. House of Representatives
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law
Represented By: Elizabeth Goitein
Represented By: Kenneth E Payson
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]
Amicus curiae: Former Members of Congress
Represented By: Robert M McKenna
Search News [ Google News | Marketwatch | Wall Street Journal | Financial Times | New York Times ]
Search Finance [ Google Finance | Yahoo Finance | Hoovers | SEC Edgar Filings ]
Search Web [ Unicourt | Justia Dockets | Legal Web | Google | Bing | Yahoo | Ask ]

Disclaimer: Justia Dockets & Filings provides public litigation records from the federal appellate and district courts. These filings and docket sheets should not be considered findings of fact or liability, nor do they necessarily reflect the view of Justia.


Why Is My Information Online?